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Base of Pyramid

A base of pyramid business venture is a revenue generating enterprise that either sells goods to, or sources products from, those at the base of the pyramid in a way that helps to improve the standard of living of the poor.

A base of pyramid (BOP) strategy should incorporate growth, profit AND make a contribution to humankind. There should be both economic development AND social transformation as a result. 

According to Prahalad and Hart (), doing business with the world’s 4 billion poorest people - that is, two-thirds of the world’s population - requires radical innovations in technology and business models and requires multi-national companies to re-evaluate price–performance relationships for products and services. BOP marketing is NOT about selling to the poor - it is not simply about affordability. To be considered a BoP initiative the products and services provided must bring clear social value to the impoverished.

C.K. Prahalad, and S.L. Hall (2002), The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Eradicating Poverty through Profits, Wharton School Publishing

M-Pesa Case Study